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Nowadays, it is no doubt that human beings are suffering from depression and pressure in daily lives. However, most of the people are not aware of it. Psychologists have been focusing on how these repressed, and subconscious emotions play an active role throughout life since the early twentieth century. The ‘Father of Psychology’, Sigmund Freud, theorized a system of categorizing individual’s mental life into three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the primitive (unconscious) part of a personality that respond directly to the human instinct; the ego is the decision-making (conscious) component, and it develops to satisfy between the cravings of the id and the external world; the superego is the preconscious part of the personality that deals with moral judgment. Many authors have incorporated this theory into their works by means of the characters. The novel Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, tells a story about the end of the innocence and the beginning of the savagery that a group of British children left stranded on a beautiful island after a plane crash, and they were immersed in freedom until the human nature took over. Golding utilizes Jack, Ralph, and Piggy who are the primary characters to interpret Freud’s concepts of this three types of human personality, respectively.
First of all, Jack is the best concerned with the personality suggested by id. He represents the dark side of human nature, and he displays the id mentality through his violent actions. He had tried to maintain civilized before he started hunting. However, it does not remain constant. It fades soon while he is driven by his desires. The dictator becomes dominant in his personality. Following his desires, every time the first thing that comes to his mind is always to kill or hurt others. While Jack and his boys are managing to kill a wild boar, they begin dancing and saying, “[k]ill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in” (Golding 79). This chart indicates the unit lust among them and it also becomes a symbol of their savagery. It is obviously not a primary need but only meant for fun and pleasure. They are now driven by the innate desire for destruction. Furthermore, according to the ‘pleasure principle’, it seeks to avoid pain and unpleasantness in order to satisfy one’s biological and psychological needs. It is not bad enough to have desires but to act upon it. Jack does so to a mother sow, “Jack [is] on top of the sow, stabbing downward with his knife…the spear move[s] forward inch by inch and the terrified squealing [becomes] a high-pitched scream. Then Jack [finds] the throat and the hot blood spout[s] over his hands” (Golding 149). The imagery and action indicate that Jack does things without thought of any consequences, only for his own impulsive desires. Like the id aims to take over the thought in one’s mind without determining the needs of others rather than reality and morality.
Secondly, Golding portrays Ralph as an embodiment of ego that makes sure to satisfy all the needs and wants of the id in a way that seems proper in today’s world, which means that ego interacts with He is the chief and one of the most influential boys in this little society. He has the ability of leadership and tries to keep the other boys away from becoming savages.