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In the article I going to review today is on “Media, Violence, Physical Aggression, and Rational Aggression.” Aggression is the intention to harm others, they come in varies ways, mild, verbal and/or psychological. There have been hundreds of studies done on aggression in media violence. The many studies that are performed in this article, identifies across many media platforms Like, TV, video games, movies, etc. And also it measures the MVE, which is the Media Violence exposure across the different types of media. The Studies that are conducted in this article try to explain the reasoning behind the aggression that occurs for being exposed to violence in videos and video games.
Drive Theory is something that stems from external conditions that arouse motives to harm others. General Aggression Model shows how aggression occurs on basis of two factors. Situational and individual difference factors. These lead to aggression through arousal, affective states- that is how you feel about someone or something or its cognition. In this review, there is a model that explains the development of aggressive cognitions, attitudes and behaviors and how the MVE (Media Violence Exposure) which is how one behaves when exposed to violence, and how it may contribute to these aggressive ways in children who see violence through the many media platforms. This model also shows how personal and situational affects aggressive outcomes but it also determines if people think about their actions or do they act on their own impulses. This model was used to predict that violence can lead to aggressive behavior and cause a certain arousal and leads to very aggressive thoughts, which in turn influence, these aggressive behaviors.
In this article there 3 are the hypothesis that is being tested and each one of them had the MVE or the Media Violence Exposure. The prediction of the first study was going to be a positive correlation with aggressive beliefs. The second study used the same positive correlation with later aggressive beliefs and behaviors like Verbal, relational and Physical aggression and was predicted to be a negative correlation. And the third and final study of the hypothesis is the relation of Media Violence Exposure and prosocial behaviors.
The participants of this study were 430 kids ranging from the 3rd grade to the 5th grade. Students at 5 different public schools, 1 suburban private school, and 2 suburban public schools, and 1 rural public school. The sample that went with this test was between boys and girls. 49% of them were girls, while 51% being boys; the average age of the kids was 7.9 yrs. old. Teachers that were interested volunteered their classrooms, with consent forms being mailed home to parents. There were 3 surveys, 1) was a nomination by the classmates to measure aggressiveness of their behaviors and prosocial behaviors. 2) Survey of media and demographic data. 3) The measure of hostile attribution bias. Teachers completed the survey for each student and did this randomly twice during the school year recording the children’s aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Participants were to complete the survey twice throughout the school year and record their findings.
The children were timed 2 times in this study viewing TV and playing video games. Time 1 was seen to have children watching TV on average 20.8 hrs per week and playing video games at 9.6 hrs. per week. These averages also took into consideration that the boys watched and played more video games that the girls did. The Time 1 second time or Time 2, was reported that positively correlated with hostile attribution bias (overall, relational, and physical), and verbally and physically aggressive behaviors. MVE was significantly and negatively correlated with prosocial behaviors. As with the first measurement, Media Violence Exposure was not related to the use of relational aggression.
Out of the 3 hypothesis that was tested, all 3 were supported by the results. But because this certain study involved repeated measures, the second test the participants began to realize what they were all about and to possibly change or modify the final results of the second test. These studies showed the correlation that boys were going to be more violent because they watch more violent videos and play video games than the girls do, which shows why boys are more likely to show these aggressive tendencies after viewing or playing violent videos or video games.