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This report will include a description of what is meant by the basis of discrimination and the different types of discriminatory practice with examples from health and social care settings and Winterbourne View. Then it will show a brief description of the potential effects of discriminatory practices: marginalization, disempowerment, low self-esteem and self-identity, restricted opportunities, negative behaviors such as aggression or criminality with examples from health and social care settings and from Winterbourne View. Lastly, we will look at the effects of three discriminatory practices on the service user at Winterbourne View, this can be both physically and psychologically.
• Overt Abuse – e.g. low self-esteem, restricted opportunities, disempowerment
• Covert Abuse – e.g. marginalization, low self-esteem, low self-identity
• Infringement of rights – e.g. marginalization, negative behaviors
The basis of discrimination is the cause as to why someone is being discriminated. This all starts from the assumption we have of someone, we build a dislike of a person based on their appearance and label them by calling them names etc. this all then leads to discriminating someone. The basis of discrimination means to protect individuals from discrimination. The basis of them being discriminated is due to their race, color, religion, gender etc.
Types of discriminatory practice in a health and social care and Winterbourne View are service users being treated in a very poor manner due to learning disabilities for e.g. one of the service users in the setting had the water bottle he was attached to and professionals were teasing him saying they would throw it out of the window. Another example of discriminatory practice in Winterbourne View was when a girl who had fear of water was forcefully showered with cold water for no absolute reason. All these are types of discriminatory practices that happened in a health and social care setting where equality and diversity are emphasized on time and time again. Other types of discriminatory practices include:
• Direct discrimination – this is when you are treated differently and worse compared to other due to some reason, this is the type of discrimination most people may face. An example may be your age or disability you have.
• Indirect discrimination – this is when there is a rule or policy that applies to everyone but effect certain people in a bad manner, for example, if there’s’ a policy where all staff has to work on Sunday in a residential care home, this can have an impact on the Christians who attend church. This is indirect discrimination
• Associative discrimination – this is the act of discriminating a certain person due to their association they have with someone belonging to a relevant protected group. Example, an employee being sacked from work due to taking time off in order to care for their disabled child.
• Perceptive discrimination – this is discriminating an individual based on perception. An example of perceptive discrimination is a racist professional in a health care center throwing away rude comments or saying inappropriate things to a person based on their thought of them being a Muslim.
Three types of abuse that were carried out by professionals in Winterbourne that affected service users physically or psychologically was overt abuse, covert abuse, and infringement of rights. Overt abuse affected service users at Winterbourne as some service users were kicked and punched openly in front of other service users and this happened consistently, some service users were made to have showers using cold water. This can have a physical effect on service users as they may get injuries or they may suffer from illnesses such as hypothermia. Physiologically service users may feel helpless and this can lead to having mental problems such as depression etc. some service users may feel like they have been abandoned by their families and left in that place to be tortured. They may start to feel useless and have a low self-esteem. Service users were treated so low that they may feel disempowered.
The covert abuse that happened in Winterbourne can have affected service users in many different ways. Some examples of covert abuse that was carried out by professionals towards service users are when one of the carers took away a service users pillowcase that was sentimental to the service users and told her to stop behave and no swear otherwise if she did the pillowcase will not be returned to her, the professional was trying to control the patient by using something that was sentimental to the service user. This could affect the service user physiologically as they may feel hollow without their sentimental objects around them, or they may feel insecure without their objects.