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Nowadays, wireless communication devices and systems have a huge impact on everyone. This project describes the performance of the 433MHz RF module for WSN applications. The system is built wirelessly where it can transmit and receive signals from DHT11 which is a temperature sensor and humidity. This 433MHz RF module is used to transmit and receive data from Arduino Pro, which is connected directly to the RF module and sensor modules. It also allows data packets to be moved remotely. There are other transmissions such as Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Bluetooth and others but the 433MHz RF module creates more flexibility in dealing with such problems. Therefore, the 433MHz RF module is selected to achieve the goal of the project as the RF module can handle the problem. Additionally, the transferred data will also be sent and received without any loss of data in the barrier or in a line of sight. These projects should examine the distance and performance of the 433MHz RF module.
Pada masa kini, peranti dan sistem komunikasi tanpa wayar mempunyai impak yang sangat besar kepada semua orang. Projek ini menerangkan tentang prestasi modul RF 433MHz untuk aplikasi WSN. Sistem ini dibina secara wayarles dimana ianya boleh menghantar dan menerima isyarat dari DHT11 yang merupakan sensor suhu dan kelembapan. Modul RF 433MHz ini digunakan untuk menghantar dan menerima data dari Arduino Pro, yang disambungkan secara langsung dengan peranti modul RF dan sensor. Ia juga membenarkan paket data yang diperlukan untuk dipindahkan dengan jarak jauh. terdapat jugak penghantaran lain seperti Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Bluetooth dan lain-lain lagi tetapi modul 433MHz RF mencipta lebih banyak fleksibiliti dalam menangani masalah seperti ini. Oleh sebab itu, 433MHz RF modul dipilih untuk mencapai matlamat projek ini kerana modul RF dapat menangani masalah tersebut. Selain itu, data yang telah dipindahkan juga akan dihantar dan diterima tanpa ada sebarang kehilangan data di dalam halangan mahupun garis penglihatan. Projek-projek ini perlu mengkaji mengenai jarak dan prestasi modul RF 433MHz.
To my beloved parents, thank you for the support, encouragement, and understanding from both of you, Mukhtar Bin Baharom and Rahmah Binti Yunus. This work is dedicated to them.
Thanks to Allah S.W.T for his blessing and mercy for giving me the strength to complete my task that given in Final Year Project. However, it is impossible for me to complete this project without help and support from anybody. So, I would like to thank you for all of them.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Mohd Khanapiah Bin Nor for guiding me to complete this project. He was giving me necessary information regarding the project and a lot of inspiring ideas. My appreciation also gives to my beloved parents, family members, and friends who have been behind me throughout this project for the encouragement and supported from them. I really appreciate all their help and support while I’m completing this project. Lastly, I would like to sincerely thank Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for providing the facilities and equipment for me to complete my project.
In the previous era, the technology application mostly using wire but now a wireless device has become commonplace. The wireless sensor network can be defined as an application that having no wires connection on that devices. In addition, to make the system easy to monitor from a distant location, the RF 433MHz module was used. So, this project gives the idea for studying details about the RF 433MHz module performance for WSN application.
1.1 Project Background
Nowadays, using the wireless sensor network (WSN) technology to monitor the environment helps someone to solve the problems of deployment difficulty, high cost, and realized unmanned monitoring which is mostly used in a factory, buildings, laboratory, and house. This project is to study the range and performance of the RF 433MHz module for WSN application. RF 433MHz module is popularly used in the remote control system. This range also available to use in this area. There are two types of the RF module which is transmitter and receiver. From research, using RF 433MHz module, the data can get more accurately without any data losses with the range that given than compared to another transmission for the wireless sensor network.
The range that can reach by this RF module is different between outside and inside area. For inside area, it can work for 50 meters through multiple walls with an antenna, while for the outside area, it will be able for hundreds of meters. Besides that, a microcontroller such as Arduino also used in this project. Arduino that available for this project is Arduino PRO which is it has 3.3V port that will be easier to connect directly to the types of RF 433MHz module that used in this project.
This project also will be studied the analysis of the data transmission by giving a few of distance between the transmitter and receiver of the RF 433MHz modules when located in the obstacles or line of sight area. Then, the data that are received will be displayed on the computer whether there are data losses or not. The problem that becoming as issues right now is there is a lot of ways to send data but the problem is about the range, cost, and data losses. So, for this situation, study the performance of RF 433MHz can overcome the problem for the WSN application.
The objectives of this project are to understand the range and performance of RF 433MHz module. Moreover, exploration about the transmitting and receiving the data by using the RF 433MHz module. The main work scope of this project is to make sure this project will achieve the objectives.
The main focus of this project:-
i. To study and understanding the range of RF 433MHz module.
ii. To transfer data by using RF 433MHz module.
In this project, there is three part that needs to follow. For the first part, it will be focused on the conducting the literature review and do some research more detail about the RF 433MHz module. Meanwhile, for the second part, after the software development process, the hardware development process will take over and include the testing of the project. Last part, when the hardware and software complete their part, it will be followed by testing the performance and the operation of the project to make an analysis.
The methodology is the explanation of the procedures or steps when doing this project. The simulation, analysis, and evaluation of the project. A literature review is an important step before proceeding to the project. Collecting all the required information about the 433MHz RF module from the books, journals, and website. The literature review also can provide a useful information to complete the project. The idea for this project comes from the problem faced when the data that have been transmitted becomes losses with the range that provided. In this chapter, it will be explained more details about the project and also the components that will be used in this project.
The frequency of 433MHz that used in the wireless sensor network can test the sending and receive the data for this range without any data losses. 433MHz RF modules required the 17cm of the antenna to support the range to send the data. The range is one of the most important parameters of any wireless system which is it defined how the transmitter and receiver can be apart from each other to send the data. A range of the outside with few obstacles the data can go through hundreds of meters. While for the indoor, the data can go over 50 meters through multiple walls. The external antenna will be soldering to the “ANT” on the transmitter to get more range which is 17cm of the length of the antenna that was used.
Regarding the several research that I have done from a few of journals that can relate to my project. Wireless sensor networks are currently widely used in several of monitoring and control applications. Guohua Yang and Kui Zhang (2015) have conducted a project regarding the 433MHz radio for long-range communication. They present about the connectivity, range of the communication and packet loss ratio that have been performed in the indoor and outdoor environment.
The Maarten Weyn and Glenn Ergeerts (2013) conducted the survey of the DASH7 Alliance Protocol for wireless sensor network (WSN). In this research, it stated that 433MHz is an unlicensed band. They said that, due to the frequency, it has a better propagation characteristic opposed to the higher frequency. The wavelength at the center of frequency is 69.14cm which is the bandwidth for the frequency is 1.84MHz. This limits the data rate of the communication at this frequency 433MHz is an ideal for low power of low data rate communication. Budi Setiyono, Sumardi, and Rafdito Harisuryo (2015) have conducted a project on measurement system of temperature, humidity and air pressure over 433MHz radio frequency for an application on a quadrotor. They using the telemetry system which is the measurement process of data at a certain distance. Then, they stated that data will be processed or analyzed by the receiving station. They stated on their result which is for successful transmission, the amount of data that received will be same as the amount of data that have been sent.
This project is to improve the data transmission with 433MHz RF modules either in obstacles or line of sight condition. The 433MHz RF modules are categorized as the lower cost, lower power consumption and the most important is when the longer the distance for data that transmit remains accurate when it received by the receiver. In theoretical, the success of data transmission is the amount of data received will be same as the data that have been sent. That means there are no data losses when the transmission occurred.
Radio Frequency (RF) is a rate in the range of around at 3 kHz to 300GHz which is corresponding to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating current that can carry the radio signals. ITU bandstand for International Telecommunication Union that defined for the electromagnetic frequencies that used for radar and radio. The best set of terms for frequencies used in communication. While the very lowest bands have no radar applications. The table below shows the frequency range and ITU band.
The Arduino Pro is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. This microcontroller is an open-source hardware and software. The version that used in this project is 3.3V/8MHz. This version can be powered by a battery or external power supply. It has 14 digital inputs and output pins which is 6 of it can be used as PWM output, another 6 pins for the analog input, battery power jack, an ICSP header and reset button. Arduino Pro needs to connect with FTDI cable through six pins header to provide the USB power and have a communication with the board. Arduino Pro has the port for 3.3V that can supply the voltage for the transceiver.
Each of the 14 digital pins on the Arduino Pro can be used as an input and output which is operated at 3.3V. Each of the pins can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA and has internal pull-up resistor (disconnect by default) of 20 until 50 kohm. The ATmega328 has 32KB and running 8MHz of the external resonator. It also has 2KB of SRAM and 1KB of EEPROM that can read and written with the EEPROM library.
The operation of the Arduino microcontroller is based on the connection made on the pins. The application can be done by using the Arduino software where Arduino function can be edited according to the applications in this software. This software can work on by using the C or C++ language.
The program that has been creating the need to upload to the microcontroller by using the USB cable. If there is an error detected on the program, it will be adjusted by editing to make a correction on the process and then the program needs to reload again. Other than that, there is another option which is using the reset button to delete all the previous program that have been upload before this to make it clear then built again.
MHz RF Module version that has been used. It is because can operates in the unlicensed ISM (Industry Science and Medicine) radio band. It’s available for use in the inexpensive area for short-range wireless networks of sensors. This types can operate on the 433MHz frequency and can capable of transmitting at up to 100mW and up to 300kbps. When increasing the transmit power and reducing the data rate it can maximize the range of the 433MHz.
DHT11 is a digital temperature and humidity sensor. Its suitable for my project that only needs to read the data about the temperature and humidity only. Micro-B is the smallest USB connector type. This type also used for the android as a cable for charging while USB port A is that can connect to PC or laptop. This USB cable needs to connect the RF transceiver module with the Arduino Pro at the transmitter and receiver.
Using this board because the standard FTDI board cannot supply the enough current to run the RFM69 433MHz RF Modules. The difference between standard FTDI and Beefy 3 FTDI is the current that can provide which is standard FTDI provide 50mA while Beefy 3 FTDI provides up to 500mA.
This chapter will be discussed the procedures and steps that used in this project. Each of the methods that were used to achieve this project will be stated and explain briefly. The purpose of the methodology is used to achieve the objective that has been stated.
3.1 Software Design
In this part, the software design is part to do the programming by using the Arduino software. The flow of the data transmission starting from the reading of the temperature and humidity by using the DHT11 sensor. Then, the data will be processed by a microcontroller. It will be sent through the transmission of data by using the 433MHz RF transmitter module. When the power supply is turned on, the 433MHz RF receiver module and the microcontroller ready to accept the data that have been transmitted. After that, the data is sent by the Arduino microcontroller via a serial port to the computer for displaying the data. Based on Figure 1 and Figure 2 it showed the flow how it works.
Hardware design consists of two parts which are from here it will be explained how the flow of the project will be complete. For the first part as shown in Figure 3.3 is the data obtain from the DHT11 sensor reading, then the data will be transmitted by the 433MHz RF transmitter modules. While for the second part as shown in Figure 3.4 is the data received via 433MHz RF receiver modules then sent by the Arduino PRO that connected to a computer for display.
The generated data for this project should be the same with the theoretical results. Besides that, the results of this project will be compared with the theoretical results, the journals or book that have been found.