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Parenting styles have been a topic of interest in the world of research for many years. Parenting styles are something that have been studied over and over again, to find the “best” way to raise children and to observe the effects of parenting on children. These different styles may lead to many different personalities exemplified by the children. These parenting styles include: authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive parenting, and uninvolved parenting. These differences in parenting may lead to different personality traits in the children involved like low or high self esteem, positive or negative outlooks on life, their communication with others, and how they deal with conflict. This study analyzes the parenting styles listed and their direct effect on children\’s personalities. It questions how different parenting styles effect children. The study will be conducted through the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Its goal is to increase the amount of knowledge regarding effective parenting and how it relates to positive personality traits in children.
Today, parenting is a very popular topic for communication. It is a very common trend in life as many people get married and have children. Different styles of parenting may lead to the personality traits of the children involved. This effectiveness of parenting styles is likely connected to children and is worth studying in order to increase the happiness and positive personality traits of kids everywhere. Parenting styles range from authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive parenting, and uninvolved parenting.
Learning more about parenting styles between parents and children will help in understanding the effect parents have on their children’s personality. For example, a mother or father may communicate with their children in a way they think is beneficial to their well-being; when in reality the children receiving the message may take it differently than intended, and the effects could be detrimental. This can cause conflict and stunt their self-esteem resulting in further issues as they develop their personalities. Parents have the most direct control in children lives as they are their primary caregivers and source of stability or lack thereof. Different children will act in different ways specifically resulting in the way their parents act towards them. For example kids of the authoritarian parent lack some social and leadership skills due to their belief in “spare the rod spoil the child rule.” Children raised by authoritarian parents tend to become authoritarian themselves, both in their interpersonal relationships and as parents.
(Williams & Ciarrochi, 2012) This means that what they are raised doing and being is what they are most likely to become themselves.
Parenting is a task that should not be taken lightly as there are so much responsibility and obligation. Personality development is thought of as partly hereditary and partly influenced by environment. This raises the question of nature versus nurture when dealing with children. Are they born a certain way or do they develop their personalities strictly due to parenting style?
This literature review will discuss different parenting styles, including authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive parenting, and uninvolved parenting. The parent-child relationship has important and significant impacts for a child. A parental style is an important component that shapes the child\’s views about themselves and their world. Parents are a source of producing healthy self-esteem, self-worth, healthy thinking and behavior in children (Santrock, 2005).
This study will further advance research on parenting styles by helping people discover more about the positive effects of the parenting styles and how that translates effectively into the development of children’s personalities. At a time when parenting is considered harder than ever before it is critical in conducting studies and experiments that will further the comprehension and importance of different parenting styles.
Review of Literature
Authoritarian parenting is known most commonly for their adherence to rules, dominating style, and a great deal of control. This type of parenting can be described as the big bad wolf parenting style. It is one of the strict rules to ensure the children behave and respect the rules and order. According to psychologist Diana Baumrind, authoritarian parents hope to see their kids following rules unconditionally. She says, these parents “are obedience and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation.” (Grolnick, 2012) Grolnick is studying Baumrinds account of authoritarian parenting and acknowledges that the authoritarian parent assures compliance through coerciveness and threats without any need for back and forth communication. Baumrind found that “children of authoritarian parents were less competent, assertive, and achievement motivated.” (Grolnick, 2012) in another article, the same thing was stated about authoritarian parenting that: by preventing children from exercising control over their own behaviors and learning from their mistakes, authoritarian parents inadvertently may be rearing children to believe that they are not responsible for what happens to them. The kids then lose a sense of responsibility in their forming personality and push the blame to other circumstances. Authoritarian parenting style has repeatedly been found correlated with negative self-perceptions. (Cheryl, Marsiglia, Walczyk, Buboltz, & Diana, 2005). This parenting style sets rules that aren\’t to be challenged and is rarely explained to ensure compliance this can frustrate and adolescent making them withdraw into themselves.
Adolescents from authoritarian families have poor social skills, lower self-esteem and a higher level of depression than do children of authoritative parents according to a research study done in 2004. Authoritarian parents tend to raise girls who are less independent, boys who are more aggressive, and children who appear discontent and more extrinsically motivated. “When parents act on feelings of hostility, anger, resentment, or enmity, the children become aggressive, shows anger in different ways and have more behavioral problems. They are hostile, emotional irresponsible, impaired self-esteem, impaired self-adequacy and negative world view.” (Jennifer, & Katherine, 2004; Michelle, 2002). Due to hurt children feel for their parents they become whats know as defensively independent. They start to despise their parents and become vengeful. This can in certain cases result in violence or other serious relationship problems like verbal abuse.(Jennifer, & Katherine, 2004; Michelle, 2002).
According to Altaf these kids either internalize or become extremely aggressive towards other in order to have some sense of control. They either have low self-esteem or become extreme bullies ignoring others rights just as their own rights have been ignored. (Altaf, 2002) Children of authoritarian parents tend to have foreclosed identities and have trouble sympathizing with others. Malik also found in the present study of authoritarian parenting that this style led to negative relationships with home, health and emotional adjustment of adolescents. He found this style is “associated with the parents who are highly critical and rejecting and adolescents of such parents adopt a negative identity. They try to get their parents attention or to punish them through behaving badly.” These kids want their parent’s approval and that shows in their personalities. Sadly, beneath the defiance is growing depression caused by their internalizing the rejection of their parents. They start hating their parents and try to avoid them. More use of smoking and alcohol is seen in these children. Malik (2005) These children tend to look for attention in either a negative way like mentioned before drugs, alcohol, and sex or in a positive way by trying to get the attention of teachers, coaches, pastors and many more.